What Are the Factors to Consider When Selecting Rotary Encoders?

Computers & TechnologyTechnology

  • Author Jane Yu
  • Published April 24, 2021
  • Word count 1,212

In a series of modern machinery industries like construction, building materials, mining, engineering vehicles, metallurgy, water conservancy, port machinery and other fields related to large heavy equipment, the reliability and safety of equipment comes first in process control.

For safety requirements, reliable feedback of encoder signals is directly related to control safety and reliability. Unreliable and inappropriate encoder selection will lead to frequent equipment debugging and maintenance. As a result, labour costs of debugging and maintenance may rise hugely, and on-site service engineers will never be enough.

So what are the techniques of selecting the right encoder?

The specific work environment of various devices determines the selection of different encoders and their transmission methods.

A.The work environment is complex. Frequency converter, large motor and high and low voltage power supply system, signal cable and power line are arranged together, making heavy electrical interference for encoders.

B.Some devices need to be moved in long-distance and are difficult to ground.

C.The distance of signal transmission is long, and the safety and reliability of signal data are required to be precise.

D. Real-time and reliable signal transmission are required to ensure secure control response.

E. Many of the encoders is used outdoor or in a harsh environment, which requires the industrial class of products.

Therefore, the right selection of encoders is very important for the use of heavy machinery and equipment. Encoders can be divided into incremental encoders and absolute encoders based on signal principle.

Absolute encoders have been widely used in many fields due to their in place design and excellent process performance, and have won a good market reputation.

Incremental encoders convert displacement into a periodic electrical signal, then transform this electrical signal into a counting pulse, and the number of pulses is used to represent the displacement.

In diverse fields, there is more extensive use of encoders. Based on different uses and principles, the performance of different encoders excels in the work environment that fits them.

Here’s a comparison of the differences between these two types of encoders.

-Absolute Encoder

When an absolute encoder rotates, there are one-to-one codes (binary, BCD codes, etc.) output corresponding to the position. From the change of code size, the position of the positive and negative direction and displacement can be determined without a phase circuit.

An absolute encoder has an absolute zero code. After a power failure or shutdown, the code of the power failure or shutdown position can still be accurately read and the zero code in the encoder can be accurately found. When the power is turned on, the measurement is restarted.

When purchasing absolute encoders, besides examining the model, the performance serial number and the number of segmentation (or digits) needs to be paid attention to.

For the selection of the number (or digits) of the split, here’s a reference formula:

Number of divisions = 360°/design resolution

The output code system and output mode of the selected absolute encoder should correspond to the user's rear processing circuit.

In general, the measuring range of absolute encoders is 0°~360°, but special models can achieve multi-turn measurement.

Selection Notes about Absolute Encoders

  • Parameters

When choosing an absolute encoder, you need to consider the corresponding parameters. The first is the mechanical installation size of the equipment, including the shaft hole size, installation hole position, and the corresponding outlet method that the equipment adapts to.

Second, the size and space of the equipment should meet the installation requirements of the equipment, as well as the material protection level of the equipment. Besides, it’s important to pay attention to the resolution of the device in order to ensure that the device has high-quality signal processing capabilities.

  • Interface Selection

In the working process of the absolute encoder, the corresponding electrical selection is used to help complete the corresponding work. Therefore in the process of selecting an absolute encoder, it is necessary to pay attention to the corresponding electrical interface, which indicates whether it matches the corresponding Voltage output and the output of integrated electrical appliances.

As a result, the output mode of the device can help the corresponding control system and circuit to match each other.

  • Choice of the Dealer

Generally, choosing equipment dealers is also an important part.

First, analyze from various practical aspects, including the market scale and reputation of the dealer, and its price positioning compared with competitors on the market. In a word, when choosing the right dealer, users need to choose the appropriate equipment and services according to their own use, so as to guarantee future use.

-Incremental Encoder

When an incremental encoder rotates, it has a corresponding pulse output. Its rotation direction and the increase and decrease of pulse quantity is read by the phase judging circuit and counter at the back.

The counting point can be set arbitrarily, and it can realize unlimited accumulation and measurement of multiple turns. It is also possible to use the Z signal for each pulse transmitted as a reference mechanical zero position. When the number of pulses is fixed, the original pulse can be multiplied by the 90° phase difference A and B signals to improve the resolution.

When ordering incremental encoders, please specify the selected model, number of output pulses per revolution, power supply voltage, wire outlet mode, and signal output mode. Besides, users should know whether the mechanical installation size of the selected model can meet your requirements.

The number of output pulses per revolution should be selected according to the following formula.

Number of output pulses per revolution (P/r) = 360°/design resolution

When selecting the signal output mode, please note its match the rear circuit. If the long-line drive output mode is selected, users should select a matching receiver so that the rear circuit can accept the data.

Selection Notes about Incremental Encoders

  • Parameters

When purchasing appropriate incremental encoders, users need to consider the technical parameters. So what factors do the technical parameters of encoders include?

First of all, the installation limits and methods. Generally speaking, we will divide the installation methods of encoders into two types, base installation and flange installation. There are different characteristics of the two methods.

Secondly, the signal processing frequency of the encoder. Whether there are internal chip and relevant technical parameters of the central processing module are also factors worth paying attention to when selecting encoders.

  • Quality of the Encoder

First, note the material of the encoder. Generally speaking, encoders are made of new composite materials and metal materials.

When an encoder is made, it needs to be tightly closed to ensure that the device is absolutely hermetic. The quality of encoders can also be considered from various components, so as to better meet the use of the equipment.

  • Price

When choosing an incremental encoder, or anything, we need to consider its price. What factors should be taken into account for this part?

The main considerations are device performance and the choice of channels. If users want the encoder to have an advantage in performance, they need to consider the market changes of encoders and make a reasonable choice according to their actual situation.

Overall, The main factors you need to consider when selecting rotary encoders have listed in the article. I hope you can take the advice and choose what works best for you.

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