What is a Conditional Generative Adversarial Network?

Computers & TechnologyTechnology

  • Author Limarc Ambalina
  • Published November 1, 2023
  • Word count 1,463

The rise of Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) has introduced innovative services and cutting-edge tools to automate tasks, optimize processes, and speed up transactions. These benefits make it more enticing for businesses to deploy AI services for their expansion and growth strategies.

One important technological breakthrough that has made this growth possible is the conditional generative adversarial network (CGAN).

What are Generative Adversarial Networks?

Before diving in, we first need to explain the “GAN” in CGAN.

The CGAN is a type of generative adversarial network (GAN), which is now a well-known structure in the field of machine learning, more specifically, deep learning.

The concept behind the GAN is like a game between two adversarial neural networks or players. Player one is called the "generator." The generator’s role is to create or generate fake data and items – in many cases, these are images – that look as real as possible. It aims to trick the second player.

Player two, on the other hand, is known as the “discriminator.” Its job is to determine which images are real (from a database/sample) and which are fake (made by the generator). If the discriminator gets it right, it gets good feedback. If it’s wrong, it gets bad feedback.

Both of these players learn and improve over time. The generator gets better at creating convincing fakes, and the discriminator improves its ability to tell if something is genuine. Over time, the network reaches a point where the generator-produced data will look almost indistinguishable from real-world data.

How is a GAN Trained?

In a strict sense, GANs are considered an unsupervised learning method because they can learn from unlabeled data. However, during the training process, labels are used internally to guide the learning of the discriminator ("real" or "fake"). For each training iteration, the discriminator receives two kinds of inputs—real data with a "real" label, and generated data from the generator with a "fake" label.

When the discriminator is being trained, it is given these correctly labeled instances, and its goal is to classify them correctly. So, it learns how to distinguish between the "real" and "fake" data, and the correctness of its judgment is checked against these predetermined labels.

Meanwhile, when the generator is being trained, it aims to produce data that the discriminator will classify as "real." The discriminator's judgment is used to train the generator in this phase. If the discriminator makes the wrong judgment, the generator successfully produced realistic enough data and learns from it.

However, another automated process can't do the ultimate check on whether the GAN has been successfully trained. A human evaluator usually reviews the generator's output to ensure the quality of its generated data. Even this may be dependent on the specific use case. For example, if the GAN is used to generate images, humans would check the quality of those images. The text would be assessed for its coherency, relevance, and realism if used to generate text.

What is a CGAN?

CGANs, short for Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks, guide the data creation process by incorporating specific parameters or labels into the GAN1.

Both adversarial networks—the generator and the discriminator—consider these parameters when producing their output. With this input, the generator creates faux data that imitates real data and adheres to the set condition. And just like in the regular GAN model, the discriminator will distinguish between the forged data produced by the generator and the genuine data corresponding to the given condition.

With the conditional aspect included, CGANs can produce exact and highly specific data for tasks that require bespoke results. This control over the kind of data generated allows businesses to cater to their unique needs, making CGANs a versatile tool in data creation and augmentation.

CGAN vs GAN diagram via https://learnopencv.com/conditional-gan-cgan-in-pytorch-and-tensorflow/2

Real-World Applications of CGAN

Here are some innovative applications and use cases of CGANs, demonstrating this AI model's groundbreaking adaptation capabilities:


Introduced by NVIDIA, GauGAN converts segmented sketches into highly realistic images in line with the specific conditions the user sets. For example, GauGAN will fill a sketch of a tree with leaves, branches, or any other details associated with trees. This technology utilizes a variant of CGANs called spatially-adaptive normalization, which applies the input condition in each layer of the generator to control the synthesis of the output image at a much more detailed level. This technology is a compelling tool in architecture, urban planning, and video game design sectors.


Developed by researchers at the University of California, this image-to-image translation tool utilizes a machine-learning algorithm based on the CGAN structure to transform one image into another. Pix2Pix takes an input image, such as a sketch or an abstract depiction, and transforms it into a more elaborate or realistic image. A common example is adding colors to an originally grayscale image or turning a sketch into a photorealistic image. This technology has the potential to be exceedingly beneficial in sectors requiring detailed visualizations from simple frameworks, such as architectural planning, product design, and various aspects of digital media and marketing.


StackGAN is a text-to-image translation model that generates realistic images from textual descriptions in two stages utilizing CGANs. In the first stage, the model generates a low-resolution image based on the text description, which serves as the condition. In the second stage, the model takes that low-resolution image and the same text condition to produce a high-resolution image. The two-step approach results in a division of labor between the stages, allowing the network to handle complex shapes and fine-grained details better than possible with a single-stage process. It solves the challenge of producing detailed images of different objects based on random noise and text description, thereby creating images of better quality.

These examples show how these innovative networks are instrumental across numerous business functions.

What is a DCGAN?

Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (DCGAN) improve how GANs process visual data by incorporating convolutional layers in both the generator and discriminator sections, leading to the generation of high-definition and superior-quality images. A convolutional layer works as a filter, aiding the generator in crafting progressively intricate visual data to outsmart the discriminator. Conversely, this filter simplifies incoming images, assisting the discriminator in distinguishing more effectively between genuine and fabricated images.

Comparing CGANs and DCGANs

CGAN and DCGAN are based on the GAN architectures.

Basic Structure:

CGANs and DCGANs retain the fundamental GAN structure, consisting of a generator and a discriminator interacting in a constant, competitive loop.

Mode of Operation:

Both types utilize the unique adversarial learning process, in which the generator and discriminator constantly learn from each other and improve over time to outdo the other.

Data Generation:

The two models can generate new and synthetic information that closely mimics the real world, reframing the existing boundaries of data limitations.

Unsupervised Learning:

They both fall under unsupervised learning, meaning they can automatically learn and discover patterns in the input data without labels.

Deep Learning Models:

Both variations leverage deep learning techniques to handle data. They use multiple layers of artificial neural networks to learn from data, extract relevant features, and generate believable outputs.

But while they share the core GAN structure, CGANs and DCGANs differ in specifications and functionalities due to the unique alterations introduced in their architecture.

Input and Control:

The main distinction between CGANs and DCGANs lies in their input method. CGANs receive conditions or labels alongside random noise as inputs, offering control over the generated data type. DCGANs, on the other hand, cannot accommodate explicit conditions and rely purely on random noise for data production. It is worth noting that these ideas can be combined. A Conditional DCGAN would use convolutional layers, like a DCGAN, and also take a conditional input, like a CGAN. This would enable the controlled generation of complex data, such as images.

Network Architecture:

CGANs have a flexible architecture that allows various types of neural networks based on the given task. Conversely, DCGANs have a rigid model that is solely designed for tasks that need the generation of highly detailed images.

Specificity vs. Detail:

Given conditional inputs, CGANs are proficient at creating specific data types tailored to a particular requirement. While DCGANs may lack specificity, they can produce more detailed, high-resolution images.

Training Stability:

Although CGANs have been successful, they lack the recognition that DCGANs have for training stability, which incorporates distinct architectural practices such as batch normalization.

Use Cases:

These two adversarial networks cater to unique use cases due to their differences. CGANs are well-suited to specific data creation and translation, while DCGANs are more apt for generating detailed images.

With abundant variations from CGANs to DCGANs, the diversity in generative adversarial networks ensures businesses can source a machine-learning model tailored to their unique organizational demands and prerequisites.

This article has been viewed 417 times.

Rate article

This article has a 5 rating with 1 vote.

Article comments

There are no posted comments.

Related articles