### General Relativity Modified

- Author Bobby Dee Ticer
- Published December 4, 2023
- Word count 2,812

General Relativity Modified

Bobby Dee Ticer

General Relativity requires only a simple change relating to a black hole condition that is further paradoxical as to how it applies to Hubble cosmology. According to a Schwarzschild metric, light speed c is slower within a gravitational field for it to become zero at a maximum limit. The zero speed is here considered incorrect. It should be one-half light speed for the maximum limit of achievement instead.

According to the metric, slower light speed c’ is equated according to speed c multiplied by the number one minus escape speed squared per light speed squared: c[1 – 2GM/Rc2]. 2GM/R is the escape speed squared (ve)2 of mass M at radius R, and G is the gravitational constant. If 2GM/R = c2, then c[1 – c2/c2] = c’ = 0. If 2GM/R = c2/2, then c[1 – ½] = c’ = c/2. Zero light speed obviously cannot escape, but the black hole condition itself is not here disputed. It maintains because of internal mass-energy of M becoming slower and of lesser amount. At c’ = c/2, the increase in M is the same as its decrease, being unique in that further increase in mass begins to decrease more than the increase thereafter.

The black hole condition is also reversible by means of more presence of outside mass nullifying inward gravitational attraction. If all mass could evenly be distributed throughout all of infinite space, then all gravity would cancel out. However, zero light speed includes infinitely slow clocks and zero length measuring rods. There is thus the paradox of mass-energy becoming non-existent except for non-local gravitational effect. The paradox is partly resolvable with c’ as the upper limit because of clocks and measuring rods not being conditional to infinitely slow time rate and zero length.

The decrease in M along counter to its increase is also according to an addition of gravitational potentials theorem in analogy to an addition velocities theorem of Special Relativity. According to the latter, mass-energy decreases by means of inelastic collision. An observer relatively at rest perceives two other observers approaching from opposite directions. If each move at one-half light speed relative to the one in between them, then they approach each other at light speed. They could even approach each other faster than light speed. However, they become partly slower while increasing in speed because of clocks and measuring rods becoming slower and shorter, and because there is a relative increase in mass in place of relative increase in speed. Further cause is due to a collision being partly inelastic. Instead of totally being reflected by a larger mass, part of it is absorbed for momentum to partly be maintained by a relative increase in mass instead of just by speed alone.

An increase in gravity is also due to a combining of mass into a lesser volume of space. Twice mass at twice radius maintains the same gravitational potential, but merely an increase in mass or decrease in radius results in a faster escape speed. Gravity in comparison to relative motion is somewhat different and somewhat the same. Whereas mass in relative motion increases by means of inelastic collision, gravitational mass-energy partly decreases.

How is this internal decrease in mass-energy conserved?

By inelastic collision, a relative decrease in mass is in compliance with conservation of mass-energy by it supposedly being emitted as some form of radiant energy due to temperature increase from internal particle interaction, thus allowing inelastic collision to occur according to such a particular condition. Similarly, the gravitational potentials theorem indicates there is also a relative decrease in internal mass-energy in relation to internal motion being slower along with light speed within the field.

Further speculation is with regard to one-half light speed instead of light speed itself being particularly unique as a limiting condition of attainment. However, consistency of theory needs to be maintained. Further analysis of the Schwarzschild metric is with regard to difference between escape speed squared 2GM/R and orbital speed squared GM/R. Escape speed ve is faster than orbital speed vo by the square root of 2. If 2GM/R = c2/2, then c’ = c/2, c’2 = c2/4, and GM/R = c2/22 = c2/4. Orbital speed thus equals reduced light speed. However, local clocks and measuring rods are relatively slower and shorter whereby both rotational and light speed are reduced by the same factor. Local observers thus perceive the particular orbital speed as c2/2 and the particular slower light speed as c.

Orbital speed vo and reduced light speed c’ = c/2 are still unique for resolving a black hole paradox along with an expanding universe one inasmuch as it is questionable as to how the universe can have an escape speed the same as light speed and still be able to expand. Resolution of the cosmic paradox is also according to the addition of gravitational potentials theorem in analogy to the addition velocities theorems. If escape speed squared is (1/2)c2, then slower light speed is c/2, which is the same as the square root of rotational speed squared as c2/4 being perceived by a local observer. Also, if escape speed squared is (1/3)c2, then c’ = 2c/3, c’2 = 4c2/9 and orbital speed squared is c2/6. If escape speed squared is (2/3)c2, then c’ = c/3, c’2 = c/9 and orbital speed squared is c2/3. Significantly, the latter orbital speed squared is three times greater than reduced light speed squared. There is thus less reduced light energy in ratio to gravitational potential energy more than what was gained.

Regarding Hubble cosmology, Einstein attempted to explain how a finite universe can neither continue to either contract inwards or expand outwards. He inserted by means of integration a constant into his field equations as a measure of some kind of positive force to counter gravitational attraction. However, the modification was not accepted by other physicists and it was soon discovered that light spectra from more distant sources is of less frequent energy. An expanding universe theory became more acceptable instead, especially after it was soon discovered that light from more distance sources is, on the average, of less energy.

The expanding universe theory interprets light frequency according to Doppler effect. Accordingly, sound and light are perceived to be of less energy if receding from the observer and of more energy is approaching towards the observer. A different interpretation is according to Tired Light theory. By it, photons of light decrease in energy while propagating through space.

Whether Hubble cosmology is according to universal expansion or of light itself decreasing in energy per distance, there are equations to consider linking gravity to electromagnetism and quantum theory. At a distance from the observer being a million parsecs, each being of 3.09 X 1013 kilometers, a recessional speed divided by that distance equates to a frequency of about H = 2.233 X 10-18 times per second. Multiplying it by the nuclear diameter of the hydrogen atom equates as 2rn = 2.1881991 X 10-12 centimeters, and then dividing it by c = 2.9978 X 1010 centimeters per second equates it to the ratio of gravitational to electromagnetic force between the electron and proton in the hydrogen atom in the manner H(2rn)/c = Gmpme/e2 = 4.4 X 10-40.

A similar value of the Hubble constant is obtained by simply dividing the gravitational constant G by light speed c in relation to centripetal force. Its frequency is about G/c = H’ = 2.225 X 10-18 times per second, whereby the ratio H’/H approximates to about 1.0036, being less than one percent difference in value. Although the numerical value of the gravitational constant is dependent on the chosen units of measurement, they cancel out in terms of centripetal force per light speed. It is of the form Gm2/cr2 = mv2/rc. Dividing v2 by c cancels out one radius r along with one time interval t. Dividing by the other r radius cancels out the remaining r of v to result in mass energy per time as frequency. Unit mass m also cancels out in relation to it being in proportion to light energy relating to the measure of its mass energy equivalence. The mathematical result is in relation to frequency.

Supposedly, the value of the Hubble constant increases towards the edge of the universe for it to equal light speed c if multiplied by radius Ru of the universe. Furthermore, GMu/Ru = c2 whereby G/c = cRu/Mu. It indicates G/c equals light frequency at radius Ru per mass Mu of the universe. By theory, the same changes in mass and radius maintain the same gravitational potential and frequency per distance. Orbital acceleration is less per mass for less change in direction around a larger orbital distance, but twice mass counters the half-as-much acceleration.

There is only a slight difference in the values of H and H’, and the gravitational constant is considered the least accurate measurement in relation to electromagnetic and atomic forces because of its minute degree of measure per mass being difficult to measure, but a change in the value of G applies to an equal change of both H and H’. Although determination of both of them have been difficult for accurate verification, and estimated results of the latter have varied over the years, there could also be another determining factor. Variable temperature, for instance, could be another reason for the slight difference in value. In any case, temperature itself has been a contributor to the historical development of atomic theory, and there are indications that its inclusion could be essential for obtaining a unified field theory providing observational verification is somehow possible to obtain on a cosmological level.

There is historical support for temperature being a developmental part of atomic theory as a counter measure. In this respect, Lorde Kelvin’s use of it as an example of disorder regarding entropy has further significance. Equilibrium states of temperature are also critical conditions of life. We humans, for example, need to maintain close to 980 degrees Fahrenheit as our equilibrium state of temperature. Mister Fahrenheit himself discovered a failure of temperature to change when particular bonding changes occur of mass. Color is another factor regarding temperature according to absorption and reflection of light. Black colored mass absorbs more of the light whereas while colored mass reflects more of it. Both absorption and reflection involve energy interaction. They differ according to equilibrium states of existence.

Analyses of temperature itself has a long history. Boyle’s law was proposed in 1662 whereby the product of gas pressure and volume remain constant at a particular temperature. Pressure relates to a particle collision as kinetic energy. According to Boyle’s law, a sphere of one-half radius is one-eighth volume and one-fourth surface area. One-half radius allows twice as many collisions per one-fourth surface area being as eight times more collisions per surface area.

Gravity is also consistent with the law in terms of centripetal force, which equates in the manner Gm2/r2 = mv2/r. In comparison to one-eighth volume at one-half radius r, it becomes Gm2/(r/2)2 = m(2v2)/(r/2) = 8mv2/r. Gravitational force squeezed into eight times less volume is simply eight times as much per spatial volume.

Regarding different temperatures for comparison, no ideal gas law was confirmed according to an absolute temperature scale. Boyle’s law did not comply in proportion to one, and atomic theory developed accordingly. According to an Avogadro constant, for instance, whereby atoms combine to become molecules, there is variance between temperature and weight. Later on, the Stefan-Boltzmann law derived from observational evidence that increase in temperature and pressure is to the fourth power instead of the third power. It applies according to a black body condition of zero temperature in relation to continuous absorption and emission of light. According to theory, incandescence of becoming visible light is reached at a particular temperature and pressure that continues to increase proportionately to the fourth power according to a perfect black body able to absorb all visible light.

Light energy also relates to Boyle’s law whereby it is cubed at one-half radius, being eight times greater within one-eighth as much volume. How, then, does it relate with surface area being one-fourth as much and diameter being half the length? Particles of the same speed within it encounter one-fourth as much surface area eight times as often whereas outside particles moving towards the center encounter the same one-fourth proportion only four times as often. It is explainable according to the superimposing of waves causing light speed to become one-half as fast. However, comparison of surface area to volume in this case requires consistency in chosen units of measurement. The six square sides of a cube, for instance, have six times as much square surface areas as its cubic volume if each side of the square is a meter, but the use of centimeters compares differently: six squares being six-hundred centimeters and volume being one-million cubic centimeters.

In effect, the superimposing of light causes it to be internally contained as mass-energy mc2. The doubling of mass-energy within one-eighth as much volume increases its mass-energy density to the fourth power, which is consistent with how the Planck constant h relates to the atomic structure. It relates in the manner of its constancy pertaining to the product of mass m, velocity v and radius r. Velocity v represents the fine structure constant being about 137.036 times slower than light speed. The product mr remains constant by an increase in m being compensated for by a proportionately equal decrease in r. The electron in the hydrogen atom, for instance, is about 1836 times less mass than the proton, and the nucleus containing the proton has a radius about 1836 times shorter than the atom as a whole. The nuclear mass-energy density is thus about (1836)4 times more than the outer part of the atom containing only the mass-energy of the electron.

The main reason why gravity is not included in the Standard Model for a unified field theory is because of virtual particles being included in the formulation of the atomic structure. Superimposing particles as wave packets can become invisible even in violation of conservation of energy. There is even matter and antimatter similar to how the square root of one can either be plus or minus one. However, interpretation is according to particular circumstances. To the contrary, for instance, if the number one represents a meter, then its square root could also be plus or minus ten centimeters.

The state of equilibrium according to the fourth power law is changeable according to relative motion, electrostatics and gravity. If containment of mass is according to a superimposing of waves becoming wave-packets, relative motion is according to the packet containing waves of particular frequencies. Waves of different frequencies are either reflected or allowed to pass through the packet. Change in relative motion is allowed by changes in frequencies of waves being reflected or allowed to pass through. The reflected waves, being more frequent, accelerate the packet to a faster speed because of their shortness allowing them to be more quantitatively active. Moreover, there are more various conditions as noted of color. White colored mass tends to reflect more of the light whereas black colored mass tends to absorb more of it.

Internal change of the wave packet is also possible regarding difference in frequencies being contained. Difference in size result in variation between surface area and volume, such that particular states of equilibrium are evident on the atomic level. Gravitational and electrostatic effects are also possible regarding changes of equilibrium states. They could be consistent with relative motion whereby waves distinguish themselves according to frequency and the equilibrium condition of the wave packet. Equilibrium conditions are thus also according to both relative motion and gravity.

Gravity and electromagnetism can both relate in manner of how the equilibrium of change occurs. The electron as the outer part of the atom is of opposite charge but of the same charge strength as that of the much smaller proton of more mass quantity equal to about 1836 electrons. Change in equilibrium, according to entropy, could result in a momentary electrostatic charge where gravity equates according to other states of equilibrium conditions consistent with gravitational potential maintaining with the same increase in distance as increase in radius in contrast to the opposite condition of quantum physics.

Although such forces as gravity and electrostatics are both according to an inverse square law, they also differ inasmuch as electrostatic force varies according to difference in the amount of positive and negative charge interacting. Gravity could merely be the result of vacuum effect whereby wave-energy escaping undetected, except for gravitational effect, is immediately replaced by wave-energy superimposing to maintain the particular equilibrium state. To the contrary, the electrostatic wave-energy is such that both attraction from vacuum effect and repulsion occur because of more different circumstances occurring as well. Electrostatics is according to various attractive and repulsive change in equilibrium conditions whereas gravity is merely consistent with those according to relative motion.

I retired at the end of 1999 and decided to self educate myself by writing and research. I soon published a novel with a small publisher in San Francisco, but they went out of business a year later. This year I published two novels and my book on gravity after countless rewrites. Its now published with Dorrance.

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