5G Technology: Benefits and Challenges

Computers & TechnologyTechnology

  • Author Enoch Agbo
  • Published May 11, 2022
  • Word count 2,047

When we believe that the future is still far away, we are forgetting that tomorrow is already the future and that we shall be living it as soon as we open our eyes in the morning. We moved from having a pocket-sized device that could be used to make and receive calls from (nearly) anyplace - 1G technology - to be able to meet that demand by sending a text message instead of phoning - 2G technology - while still having that option on the same device.

Later, the ambition to be able to access the internet from any location became a reality, thanks to 3G technology, which allowed us to do so using our mobile phones. This tendency has persisted to the present day, with our insatiable desire for knowledge mirrored in what we now call "everyday" internet browsing via smartphones equipped with 4G technology and the ability to view live streaming videos.

The tale does not end there; this need continues to grow, paving the path for the development of 5G technology, the next step in our information consumption and manner of being linked and integrated and the objects around us.

What is 5G technology?

The 5th technology of wi-fi network generation is called 5G technology. After 4G, 5G generation gives a new form of community with faster community speeds, decreased latency, and help for extra customers, devices, and services while increasing network efficiency.

5G generation supports three wide classes of use instances.

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (EMBB): Excessive bandwidth services for wi-fi connectivity.

Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC): Ultra-reliable communications with low latency for important necessities.

Massive Automatic Type Communication (MMTC): Dependable communication for billions of sensors and monitoring devices.

5G technology is designed to offer peak downstream records rates of up to twenty GB per second, which is 20 instances faster than the peak pace of 1 GB per second in 4G LTE. Similarly, 5G is expected to offer a ten - to one-hundred-fold growth in consumer experience data rates, aid 10 - to 100 - fold the wide variety of related devices compared to 4G, and have notable-low latency drawing close to 1 millisecond (ms).

The era of 5G technology will move past development in network velocity and performance, offering new progressive and advanced experiences for users. 5G technology can improve the overall performance of industrial applications while allowing new consumer studies and offerings in areas including augmented reality, virtual reality and mixed reality (VR and MR) applications, video conferencing, commercial automation, computerized driving and connected scientific medical devices.

How does 5G technology work?

To acquire increasing capacity and latency requirements, the 5G era requires additional technical additives:

New Spectrum: To reach excessive records speeds, 5G should be able to utilize new spectrum bands above 6 GHz, centimeter (cm) wavebands ranging from 6 to 30 GHz, and millimeter (mm) wavebands ranging from 6 to 30 GHz. 5G may be utilized in spectrum areas under 6 GHz as well. Coverage is supplied by means of the lower bands, whilst ability is provided by way of the upper bands.

Massive MIMO: MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a technique for growing the potential of a radio connection through the use of a couple of transmitting and receiving antennas. Talking of Massive MIMO on the other hand, it is known to be a MIMO system with a huge number of antennas (for instance, eight, sixteen, sixty-four, one hundred and twenty-eight, and so forth). Community coverage and spectral performance are improved by Massive MIMOs

New 5G Radio (5G NR): The brand new 5G radio admission era is 5G NR, developed by 3GPP for the 5G mobile community. 5G NR is based totally on the ideas of ultra-slim design, which reduces signal and strength intake. 5G NR is also designed with a flexible framework shape to efficiently multiply various 5G offerings and provide superior compatibility for tomorrow’s 5G offerings.

Open RAN: This stands for Open RAN Access network. Especially, open RAN is an ongoing variation in cell network architectures that allows telecom operators to use not unusual call subcomponents from a variety of carriers. Proprietary components which include Base Units (BBUs) and Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) are already disaggregated into Centralized Units (CUs), Distributed Units (DUs), and Radio Units (RUs). With the RAN open, new unbundled capabilities can also be virtualized or containerized.

5G core network (5GC): Based totally on the 3GPP standardization, the 5GC is designed as a service-based architecture (SBA). All core networking capabilities are applied according to cloud-native ideas, which encompass separation of person aircraft and manage planes, stateless networking, open interfaces, and APIs. Core network features can be without difficulty deployed, upgraded and scaled to release new services at a lower fee.

5G transport: To support new 5G use cases like EMBB, URLLC, and MMTC, a transport network that can sustain a huge increase in traffic, as well as a diverse set of network characteristics for each use case, is required. It must be able to support an ever-increasing number of devices, services, and new business models. Transport networks must be capable of supporting 25G, N x 25G at the access/pre-aggregation layer, 100G, N x 100G at the aggregation layer, and up to 400G at the service provider core to provide huge capacity. Furthermore, the transport network must adhere to rigorous timing standards to enable a latency of fewer than 10 milliseconds.

Network partitioning: Multiple separate end-to-end logical networks can be run on common physical equipment using network partitioning. For service or application, each division can provide a distinct quality of service (QoS). A network partition can be used to divide a network into multiple sections (access network, core network, and transport network).

Edge computing: Edge computing brings compute, storage, and network resources closer to subscribers and end-users. Proximity enhances response times while also reducing bandwidth usage. Edge computing, also known as edge cloud, is a type of computing that may be implemented within a customer's premises, such as a business or a factory floor, and maintained or hosted by a service provider.

Telecom Cloud: The Telecom Cloud is an open platform that allows service providers to avoid vendor lock-in and make use of a vast ecosystem of cloud-native features that will improve infrastructure and operations while also allowing for faster service delivery. Telecom operators can unleash a new variety of applications and services that will rejuvenate their business models thanks to the telecom cloud, which allows service agility and quick service innovation.

Security: New attack planes arise with 5G, IoT, network splitting, and edge computing. Threats can come from anywhere, and their number, frequency, and complexity are rising. 5G security may become extremely difficult to accomplish if the current security strategy is not changed. Manual response and siloed systems are no longer effective. What is required is a connected strategy that takes a holistic picture of the network and its external ecosystem in order to completely detect threats, dynamically adjust security rules, and enforce them uniformly throughout the network.

Management and Orchestration (MANO): With 5G, the number of connected end-user devices, nodes, and services inside a network explodes. It's impossible to manage network operations at the scale and quality required by hand. The only way to cope with the volume and complexity of future cloud and 5G networks is to automate operations, with full support for open APIs that can work across multi-cloud and multi-vendor settings to enable continuous visibility across platforms, AI, and machine learning skills.

Benefits of 5G technology

For a long time, it has been predicted that the 5G network will transform our lives in the next years. However, as time has passed, they have spawned a slew of occurrences that have sparked a slew of debates over their numerous benefits.

Faster Downloads: The 5G network can boost download speeds by up to 20 times (from 200 Mbps with 4G to 10 Gbps with 5G) while also lowering latency (response time between devices). These speeds will improve the browsing experience by easing operations that, while achievable today, are nonetheless challenging.

Hyper-connectivity: The 5G network promises to provide a hyper-connected environment, allowing for the creation of the much-desired "intelligent cities." The bandwidth of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) will determine how well these new dynamics function.

Process optimization: 5G technology is projected to change industries like health (for example, remote procedures), autonomous cars and traffic management, as well as its deployment in the construction industry to optimize resources and decrease risks.

5G technology's solutions to problems

Telecom companies will deploy 5G technology to accommodate ever-increasing data traffic by lowering the cost per bit dramatically. By allowing new 5G services for consumers, government, and enterprises, 5G technology allows telecom carriers to avoid losses in average revenue per user (ARPU).

Businesses are projected to benefit the most from 5G technology, as they will see increased productivity, agility, and scalability in their services. The most significant shift, for example, is anticipated to come in industrial automation, with industries being supplied by wirelessly operated robots.

Another major emphasis of 5G use cases is in healthcare. In locations where physicians are unable to access, remote surgery or linked ambulances will help save lives. Retailers will be able to provide novel experiences (such as AR, VR, and MR) while trying on, styling, and purchasing items using 5G-based capabilities, whether in real stores or online.

Cloud gaming is a new application for consumers that don't require high-volume gaming customers and delivers games straight from the 5G network's edge. In some early 5G deployments, AR and VR traffic has surpassed 20% of total bandwidth. Fixed wireless access (FWA) is also gaining popularity as a means of delivering 5G internet services to homes.

From a government standpoint, 5G technology's capabilities may assist smart cities, public services, and public safety greatly. Automobile solutions and connected autos can help to make roads safer and save lives.

Challenges 5G technology Face

Immediate obsolescence: Because the move to the 5G network will necessitate equipment that can handle it, present 4G gadgets will become outdated immediately.

Technological exclusion: The installation of the 5G network also entails a lack of quick accessibility for ordinary people, as well as a delay in its implementation owing to a lack of means to use it.

Inadequate infrastructure: For the 5G network to function correctly, a significant investment in infrastructure to improve capacity and expand coverage will be necessary, which will not be cheap. Due to the large expenses that governments would have to finance for 5G to perform correctly, this circumstance will inevitably create delays in its deployment.

Security risks and proper data handling: All of this necessitates excellent data management, which is where the biggest contention exists in terms of benefits against drawbacks. Not only are issues like Big Data approaches studied in the administration of all this information, which comes from organizations, people, and even governments. Legal and ethical standards regulating the handling and use of this data are now being debated in each nation to ensure that privacy is not harmed as a result of this interconnectedness.

Pioneers in 5G network technology

5G technology is part of a larger transformation that incorporates cloud and automation technologies to help telecom operators build a stronger and more sustainable platform. Some fear that 5G technology alone will not be enough to revolutionize telecom providers' businesses. Telecom operators must evaluate the cloud, 5G, and automation together to properly realize the value and grasp the potential these technologies provide. These technologies complement one another and, in some situations, rely on one another to work well.

Many of the benefits of 5G technology, for example, cannot be realized without the use of cloud infrastructure, whether it's a telecom and NFVI cloud, a distributed edge cloud, virtualized, containerized (VNF/CNF) services, or disaggregated. While 5G and the cloud combined bring massive improvements in scalability, performance, and agility, they also add to operational complexity, which can only be reduced and controlled by network automation.

Consumers and organizations may look forward to new experiences thanks to 5G and cloud technologies. Telecom operators need a strategy that simplifies network operation and offers distinctive customer experiences to succeed in today's 5G/multi-cloud services scenario.

5G technology is a reality that will influence our lives in a short time, much like earlier innovations, and it is essential to check into it now to reap the benefits and avoid the pitfalls.

My name is Enoch Agbo, a 400 level Electrical and Electronics Engineering Student of The Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA). I am a lover of Technology.

Email address: agboenoch99@gmail.com

school mail address: agboeee173164@futa.edu.ng

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