What are the fluoroquinolone medicines used for?
- Author Craig Payne
- Published November 13, 2022
- Word count 535
Fluoroquinolones are a popular prescription antibiotic that's frequently used to manage many different disorders a result of bacterial infections such as respiratory system along with urinary tract infections. In the United States research has approximated that fluoroquinolones will be the 3rd most commonly prescription medicine in the antibiotic group. The forerunner of this medicine category, nalidixic acid is considered the initial quinolone medication even though it is not really strictly a fluoroquinolone. It was initially produced in 1962 for the treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections. Currently the FDA in the USA has authorized several fluoroquinolones including levofloxacin (Levaquin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin, gemifloxacin (Factive) plus delafloxacin (Baxdela).
The fluoroquinolone medications prevent infections caused by bacteria by interfering with the bacteria’s DNA copying. Early generation fluoroquinolones prevent bacterial DNA activity during copying largely by hindering DNA gyrase, the chemical that's required for bacterial DNA replication, however has no effect on human DNA. There are many generations of the fluoroquinolones that are available, with each following generation being an improvement of the generation previously. The previous era fluoroquinolones were, in general, more narrower spectrum when compared to subsequent drugs, that means the more new drugs are better dealing with a wider number of kinds of bacteria.
Fluoroquinolones are usually regarded as being safe prescription antibiotics that do not cause many critical or life-threatening adverse reactions. Like all medicines they will have unwanted side effects which are not frequent and are generally usually easily managed. The commonest side-effects are usually intestinal reactions (for example nausea, dyspepsia and vomiting) and central nervous system reactions which include dizziness, sleep problems as well as headache. Any individual starting on these drug treatments needs to be monitoring for these potential side effects.
A specific side affect with the Fluoroquinolones is a higher risk of tendinopathy along with tendon tears, particularly of the Achilles tendon. This has already been most frequently recognized if you use ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The tendonitis frequently presents itself inside a month or so of starting to use the prescription drug. However, the tendon ruptures may occur out of the blue and quite often don't have any evident signs before the tear happens.
A recent study by Jichi Medical University in Tochigi Japan, suggests that the more recent third-generation fluoroquinolones may have a reduced chance of an Achilles tendon rupture. These researchers used a health care management database to recognize 504 individual instances of Achilles tendon tears which were also using an antibiotic. They were able to dig up that these particular third-generation drugs are not associated with the rise in Achilles tendon rupture. The database showed that the frequently used first- and second-generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin ended up at increased risk of an Achilles tendon rupture, that previous studies have revealed. The current third-generation fluoroquinolones including moxifloxacin, garenoxacin, sitafloxacin, prulifloxacin and pazufloxacin have been associated with a reduced potential for having a tendon rupture. They did observe that they did not look into the other side affects of the medication and further research is necessary to properly evaluate that risk.
The fluoroquinolones remain a significant medicine for use against susceptible infections in people that have respiratory in addition to urinary tract infections with modest side affects.
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