A Manager's Perspective - Dynamics of the private education industry


  • Author Bavani Thyagesan
  • Published January 27, 2024
  • Word count 2,348

The private education industry has experienced significant growth and change over the past few decades. Parents and students are increasingly seeking out alternatives to traditional public schools, driving up demand for private schools. This demand stems from a variety of factors, including dissatisfaction with public schools, desire for religious or values-based instruction, specialized curriculum such as arts or technology programs, and perceptions of superior college preparation and outcomes.

The number of private schools and diversity of offerings has expanded to meet this growing demand. There are many different types of private schools, including religious schools, preparatory academies, international schools, Montessori schools, Waldorf schools, and more. Enrollment at private elementary and secondary schools in the United States has risen steadily for years, reaching over 5 million students as of 2019. Private schools boasted an enrollment increase of 19 percent from 1999-2016, compared to only 7 percent growth for public schools.

Parents are clearly willing to pay a premium for alternatives to public education. Average private school tuition is over $12,000 per year for elementary schools and over $13,000 for high schools. However, many families require financial assistance, and most private schools offer scholarship and grant programs to help make the schools more accessible. The mission, philosophy, specialized offerings, and perceived better outcomes continue to make private schools an attractive option for many families seeking the right educational fit for their child.

Types of Private Schools

There are several main types of private schools in the K-12 education industry today:

Traditional Private Day and Boarding Schools - These schools have a long history in the US, with many prestigious institutions that have been operating for over 100 years. They offer a classic academic curriculum focused on college preparation. Some are day schools while others are boarding schools where students live on campus. They promote small class sizes, highly qualified teachers, exceptional facilities, and a nurturing community. Examples are Phillips Exeter Academy, Choate Rosemary Hall, and Lawrenceville School.

Charter Schools - Charter schools are independently operated public schools that have more flexibility over curriculum, budget, staffing and other areas. They receive public funding but operate more autonomously in exchange for accountability. Many are founded by teachers, parents or community organizations. Charter schools often focus on a specific academic approach or educational philosophy. Well-known charter networks include Success Academy, KIPP, and Achievement First.

Virtual/Online Schools - These deliver curriculum and instruction via the internet and electronic learning platforms. Students take all or most of their courses online, allowing for a flexible schedule. Virtual schools range from statewide schools like Florida Virtual School to individual district programs. They provide an alternative option for students who want non-traditional schooling. Major players in the online K12 space include Connections Academy, K12 Inc, and Apex Learning.

Enrollment Trends

Over the past two decades, enrollment in private schools in the United States has been steadily rising. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), between 1999-2000 and 2015-2016, total private school enrollment increased by over 17% from 5.9 million to 6.9 million students. This contrasts with a decline in overall public school enrollment of around 3% during the same period.

Several factors are driving this growth in private school enrollment. Firstly, parents are seeking alternatives to the traditional public school system, which faces ongoing challenges such as large class sizes, lack of resources, and low test scores or graduation rates in some areas. Private schools are seen as providing more individual attention, better college preparation, and having greater control over curriculum, teacher hiring, and discipline policies.

Secondly, the options for private schooling have expanded with the rise of charter schools, magnet schools, online academies, and other specialized or independent schools. This provides more choice for parents looking to find the right fit for their child. Charter schools in particular have seen massive growth, increasing from just a few hundred schools in the 1990s to over 7,000 today.

Finally, private schools are aggressively recruiting students and offering more scholarships and financial assistance to make themselves accessible to a wider demographic. Strategic marketing and outreach efforts have also helped private schools promote their offerings to more families across different socioeconomic backgrounds.

Given these trends, projections indicate that private school enrollment will continue growing steadily over the next decade. NCES estimates an additional 5-10% increase in private school students between 2015-2016 and 2027-2028. As education options diversify and competition intensifies, private schools must continue adapting and expanding their capacity to meet rising parent demand. Maintaining diverse, engaged student populations while preserving quality and specialization will be an ongoing focus.

Tuition Costs

The cost of private school tuition has risen steadily over the past several decades. According to a recent report from the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the national median tuition for private day schools in 2021-2022 was $28,640 for grades 1-3, $31,004 for grades 4-6, $34,399 for grades 7-8, and $39,249 for grades 9-12. This represents an average increase of about 3% per year over the past 10 years.

There is significant regional variation in private school tuition costs across the United States. The most expensive private schools are located in the Northeast, where the median 9th-12th grade tuition in 2021-2022 was $46,113. The West Coast also has high tuitions, with a 9th-12th grade median of $43,065. The Midwest and South have lower median tuitions at $32,701 and $26,733 respectively. Higher costs on the coasts reflect the higher costs of living in those areas.

While private school tuition has increased faster than inflation in recent decades, financial aid has also increased at many schools. According to NAIS, the average private school provided financial aid equal to 21.5% of the total tuition revenue. So even as the sticker price rises, the actual amount paid by families is often discounted through scholarships and grants. The schools balance keeping tuition affordable against the high costs of small classes, facilities, and top teachers.

Financial Aid

Financial aid plays a critical role in making private school education accessible to students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Private schools offer both need-based financial aid, awarded based on family financial need, and merit-based aid, awarded based on student accomplishments and attributes.

According to a recent study, over 25% of private school students receive some form of financial assistance. The average aid award covers around 50% of total tuition. Needs-based aid is more prevalent, though merit aid is on the rise as schools compete for top students.

By providing financial aid, private schools aim to attract bright, motivated students regardless of their ability to pay full tuition. Needs-based aid promotes socioeconomic diversity in the student body. Meanwhile, merit aid helps schools recruit and retain students with strong academic and extracurricular records.

In recent decades, some elite private schools have even eliminated tuition for families below a certain income level and replaced loans with grants. The goal is to remove financial barriers entirely for lower- and middle-income students.

Access to financial aid can be a deciding factor in whether or not a student attends private school. Aid unlocks opportunities, especially at high-tuition colleges and boarding schools. It allows students to focus on their studies rather than working to pay off debt after graduation.

Overall, financial aid makes private education more accessible and helps create a dynamic student body reflective of society's diversity. It remains a priority for many private schools seeking to provide top-tier education to motivated students regardless of financial means.


Teachers are a critical component of any school, but private schools in particular rely on strong educators to justify their higher tuition costs. Private school teachers must meet certain minimum qualifications, though standards can vary between schools. Most require at least a bachelor's degree and a state teaching certification. Some private schools prefer or even require teachers to hold master's degrees or additional certifications. Compared to public schools, private school teachers tend to have more education and experience on average.

Salaries and benefits at private schools also diverge from the public sector. According to a 2022 survey by the National Association of Independent Schools, the average private school teacher salary was $61,110. This lags the national public school average of $65,293. However, private school teachers often enjoy better benefits like smaller class sizes, more supportive leadership, nicer facilities, and greater autonomy in the classroom. They may also qualify for tuition discounts if they have school-aged children.

Meanwhile, retention rates are higher for private school teachers. This can be attributed to higher job satisfaction, as private school teachers report feeling less burnt out and get to deeply know their students over multiple years. The 2022 NAIS survey found average retention after 5 years was 83% at private schools compared to just 59% at public schools. Strong retention saves private schools money on continual hiring and training. It also builds institutional knowledge. But salaries and benefits must remain competitive, as teacher shortages can disrupt school culture and operations.


Private schools have considerable autonomy in developing their curriculum compared to public schools which must follow state educational standards. Private schools emphasize college preparatory coursework, though specific curricular focuses can vary widely between different private schools.

Many private schools offer accelerated learning opportunities and advanced placement courses to give students a head start on college-level academics. Languages, arts, and music are also strongly emphasized. For example, many private schools require multiple years of foreign language study. Electives and activities may include additional languages, music ensembles, theater, visual arts, debate, and academic clubs or competitions.

While adhering to a rigorous college preparatory program, some private schools have the flexibility to tailor curricula to the needs and interests of their student body. For example, a private school may develop innovative programs around technology, global citizenship, entrepreneurship, or the environment. Private schools also have the freedom to be more experimental with progressive or alternative teaching methods compared to public schools.

Overall, private schools aim to nurture their students' talents, creativity, leadership skills, and love of learning through a rich and varied curriculum. The goal is to develop well-rounded graduates equipped for the challenges of college and beyond. While meeting high academic standards, private schools also emphasize educating the whole child.


When evaluating private schools, many parents want to know about student outcomes. There are a few key metrics to consider:

College Admissions and Graduation Rates

Private school students generally have high college acceptance and graduation rates. According to a study by the National Association of Independent Schools, over 95% of private high school graduates immediately enrolled in college. After 6 years, over 80% of those students had earned a bachelor's degree. This compares favorably to national averages of around 60% for college enrollment and 40% for bachelor's degree attainment. The rigorous curriculum and college counseling at many private schools prepare students well for higher education.

Standardized Test Scores

On standardized tests like the SAT and ACT, private school students on average score higher than the national average. For example, the national composite ACT score is around 20.8, while private school students averaged 25.5 in one study. Strong academic preparation and focus on test taking strategies likely contribute to these higher scores. High scores make private school students competitive applicants for selective colleges.

Satisfaction Surveys

Private schools generally have high levels of parent and student satisfaction according to surveys. In one survey by Educational Records Bureau, over 90% of parents gave their child's academic experience an "A" or "B" grade. Most said their child was engaged and felt known as an individual at school. Surveys show students also report positive social-emotional development and high satisfaction rates. Happy students who feel academically fulfilled are important outcomes as well.

School Culture

Private schools are often known for having a strong, positive culture that sets them apart from public schools or charter schools. This school culture stems from several key factors:

Small Class Sizes: Most private schools intentionally keep class sizes small, with a student-to-teacher ratio averaging around 10:1. Small classes allow for more individualized attention and support. Students get to know their teachers and peers well, promoting deeper engagement and a sense of community within the classroom.

Sense of Community: Beyond academics, private schools emphasize building meaningful relationships and a sense of community. Students often come from similar backgrounds and families take an active role in the school community. This facilitates bonding between students, parents, and teachers. Private school communities are often described as feeling like an extended family.

Focus on Character/Values: Private schools place a strong emphasis on building character, morality, ethics, and values within their students. This goes beyond test scores to focus on shaping students into upstanding citizens and community members. Many private schools incorporate character education, service learning, or faith-based values. This provides students with a moral foundation to draw upon. The close-knit community also reinforces positive values on a daily basis.

The personalized attention, shared values, and intimate community found at many private schools lead to a positive, uplifting culture. This culture sustains students both academically and emotionally, allowing them to thrive within a supportive environment. The culture cultivated at private schools is a key benefit that sets them apart from other types of schools.


The private education industry offers many benefits but also faces challenges. Key takeaways include:

Private schools provide smaller class sizes, more individual attention, innovative curriculum and prestigious outcomes that appeal to many parents.

Demand is growing, especially in urban areas, but tuition costs can make these schools exclusionary. Scholarships and financial aid help open access.

Private school teachers often earn less but may find greater autonomy and satisfaction.

The curriculum emphasizes critical thinking, leadership and creativity along with strong academics. Extracurricular activities build community.

Graduates gain admission to top colleges and often achieve career success. Alumni networks provide lifelong connections.

However, some criticize private schools for elitism, questionable admissions practices and lack of diversity. Outcomes rely heavily on demographics.

Looking ahead, private education must continue adapting to social changes, new technologies and rising costs. More families are seeking alternative options like charter schools. Competition for top students and faculty will intensify. Private schools can retain appeal through innovation, accessibility and preparing students for a complex world.

Overall the industry outlook remains positive, as globalization and inequality drive demand for high-quality education. Private schools are positioned to lead the way, if they can balance exclusivity with serving the public good.

Regional Marketing and Student Recruiter, Author, Certified Life Coach

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