Satiety in women's movements in the last hundred years

Social IssuesWomen's Issues

  • Author Bahar Lak
  • Published July 1, 2024
  • Word count 1,326

While in ancient times, women had many rights that were sometimes equal to men, in Iran after Islam, women's rights were weakened in many cases due to the establishment of a patriarchal society based on Islamic laws. Important developments in Iran in the century Twentieth, it provided the right factors for the advancement of women. However, at every stage there was a struggle between religious and secular factors with the women's rights movement.

The role of women in the constitutional revolution

On April 15, 1285, after a series of popular demonstrations led by clerics and merchants, Muzaffaruddin Shah issued a declaration and demanded the formation of the National Assembly. The role of women in the constitutional revolution began with their intellectual and financial support of the movement. They formed by participating in gatherings and marches in big cities and launched a series of organized activities to advance this cause. On August 14, 1285, the first legislative assembly was formed to prepare the opening of the first session of the assembly and the drafting of the election law. which was limited to six classes of male voters. Since this election was entirely male, women began to work to bring about changes in their traditional society. Women were informed of the latest political events in mosques and secret gatherings. and discussed with their associations. Their political activity ranged from publishing information and news to participating in demonstrations. They were active in Tehran but also in other cities such as Isfahan, Qazvin, Azerbaijan and many others. In the early stages of the revolution and the entire period of the First Majlis, the role of women was very small and the scholars controlled their participation. In August 1285, women intellectuals were mainly from the upper classes. , started organizing associations and parties. One of the most enduring efforts of these associations was to promote women's education, and to promote this goal, they gave public speeches, opened schools, and paid staff salaries from their personal budgets. Safiya Yazdi is one of the women who joined the Women's Freedom Association and worked tirelessly to promote women's right to education and founded Eftiyeh Girls' School.

In 1286, the first organized meeting of the Women's Association passed ten resolutions against discrimination. Only in Tehran, 12 women's associations were engaged in various political and social activities. These associations, through their members and activities, which included gatherings, They acted as a pressure group against the authoritarian regime and closely monitored political developments.

Nationalist women also had their own association, to promote the idea of ​​wearing local fabrics and to prevent the purchase of imported European textiles, in order to reduce the nation's dependence on European merchants and manufacturers. Also in June 1287, throughout the second term of the parliament Women began to publicly express their desires for the right to vote. Although the constitutional revolution brought real progress in Iran and the constitution subsequently guaranteed the rights of the Iranian people; But it still did not recognize women's rights. In the meantime, with the victory of the socialist revolution in 1917, which ended the domination of Tsarist Russia over Iran, a new wave of activity for women's rights began.

The role of women in the Pahlavi period

The Majlis declared Reza Khan as the king on December 12, 1304. The military officer who had become the master of Iran was crowned as Reza Shah Pahavi in ​​April 1305. Thus, the Pahlavi reign began. to become modern and secular with a strong leadership, with the rapid westernization of Turkey followed the path of Atatürk. He made the advancement of women a part of such a plan. determined that it helped. A clear example was public education for girls.

In December 1314, Reza Shah, who had recently returned from a trip to Turkey, issued a decree declaring hijab illegal and the use of veils prohibited for women. They welcomed the title of freedom against oppression. For many women, however, the veil was not a sign of oppression. This veiling had negative effects on a certain group of Iranian women, especially the elderly, and many of them were isolated in their homes, although Reza Shah in many cases defended women's rights, but sometimes hindered their activities, which can be referred to the fate of the Patriotic Women's Association. This union was formed in 1300 by a group of women with socialist tendencies who were active in the constitutional revolution. Reza Shah initially She supported various associations to seize political power, but once she gained firm control, she began to eliminate and dissolve every seemingly independent group. Thus, in the early years, various women's movements supported her rule. However, with the increase of government control and police repression, the activities of women's groups were suppressed and finally banned in the late 1990s.

In the second period of Pahlavi, the anti-religious atmosphere began to disappear. In this period, the political and democratic parties were reorganized and it was possible to establish special branches for women. The women's center emphasized women's rights in this period. Expressing his opinions, he published the newsletter "Women's Language". After the dissolution of this center, two new parties were established, the Women's Party and the Women's Population, whose purpose was to educate and increase women's awareness. Women's organizations between 1319 and 1330 were a little more independent. The 20s saw an increase in awareness of the role of women in society. Women experienced freedom of expression, which led to an increase in their awareness. In the process of nationalization of the oil industry, all parties, including women, supported this movement; therefore, Iranian women Others suspended their demands and hoped that their rights would be recognized after the success of this important move. The debate about women's right to vote continued to increase. In 1340, during the prime ministership of Asadullah Alam, a decree was issued that gave women the right to vote and participate in provincial and city elections. However, it was withdrawn due to the opposition of scholars. Finally, due to the women's strike on March 8, 1341, women got the right to vote again. On September 26, 1342, elections were held and six women were elected as parliamentarians. And in 1343, for the first time, a woman was elected as a minister. In the 1940s and 1950s, women were organized more precisely in terms of politics and could lobby the king, the government, and moderate members of the clergy, but they still had rights that they were deprived of. Islam stopped.

The role of women in the period of the Islamic Republic

With the occurrence of the Islamic revolution and the re-entry of Islam into the country, fundamental changes were achieved. First of all, it should be noted that women were among the first to strike against the Shah's government in factories, schools, and government offices, because women also had the same basic complaints as men. And they opposed the corruption and repression of the Pahlavi government, and they also experienced the economic problems that accompanied the increasing inflation. Dr. Shariati, who was aware of the social, political, legal and educational achievements of women in the society, tried to provide an alternative position in comparison to the Marxist and Western concepts of the position of women in the society and proposed a new paradigm of ideal women. From the beginning of the Iran-Iraq war, Imam Khomeini pointed out the supporting role of women in the war. By joining the Revolutionary Guards and Basij, women participated in medical aid, literacy campaigns and constructive struggle.

The drafting of the new constitution based on Islamic laws created some restrictions for women, such as the removal of female judges and the banning of studying in some university courses, which eventually changed some of these laws with the efforts of many women. In 1370, a magazine by women It was founded in the name of "Zanan". In general, in the years after the revolution, women were able to enter various fields such as politics, law enforcement, transport industries and research, and also female representatives have gained a colorful presence in the Iranian parliament.

Im bahar lak studying political science in bachelor degree

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Mary
Mary · 2 weeks ago
How fantastic you portrayed the history